Gemstones and Semi-precious stones:
Everyone is attracted to gemstones, and it’s also said that diamonds are a girl's best friend.
In addition to the precious gems; diamonds, rubies, emeralds and sapphires, there are also a large number of semi-precious stones which for centuries have been used in ornaments and have symbolized power.
The semi-precious stones each have a number of properties and they are used as gemstones as well as healers and for meditation.
The durability of a gemstone depends on its physical properties:
Hardness, brittleness / toughness, cleavage and the ability to withstand chemical influences and scratch resistance.
The beauty of a gemstone depends on its optical properties:
Color, clarity, gloss and special light effects such as star formation and cat eye effect.
Whether a gemstone is rare is closely linked to the growth conditions under which it’s formed.
Within the minerals where rare, expensive, high-quality gemstones are found, there are also more common specimens of lower value.
The term Diamond is derived from the Greek word "adamas" meaning "the indisputable".
No substance is as hard as the diamond, therefore it’s virtually indestructible.
However, the stone can burn at very high temperatures and thereby be converted to graphite.
The diamond is formed in approx. 150 km depth.
Here there are temperatures and pressures that are high enough to be able to bind carbon atoms so close together that they form a diamond.
The diamond, which is the hardest and most durable substance that nature has created, with the hardness 10.
It only reaches the earth's surface through volcanic activity and always in connection with a lava species called kimberlite or blue ground.
Diamonds that have an actual color are extremely rare and expensive.
They are collectively called "Colored Diamonds" or "Fantasy Diamonds."
Approximately the same degree of rarity as the fantasy diamonds have the completely colorless diamonds, which are also very expensive. They have the color designation "River".
Most diamonds are faintly yellowish or brownish.
The yellow color is due to the presence of very small amounts of nitrogen.
Bluish diamonds contain very small traces of boron.
It’s apparently not only the presence of nitrogen and boron that colors the diamond, but also the position of these substances in the crystal structure.
Irradiation can in some situations change the location and thus affect the color quite considerably.
Due to the great hardness of the Diamond, it’s rarely scratched, but the stone is not unaffected by shocks because it possesses perfect fissure. The diamond is also extremely resistant to chemicals. Diamonds have a scratch resistance 10. A diamond can cut into a diamond.
Value of diamonds:
A diamond is valued by four factors: The four C’s are Carat, Color, Clarity and Cut.
Weight, color, clarity and grinding.
These 4 factors determine the price of a diamond. The larger the diamond, the more expensive it is per carat.
1 carat = 0.20 grams.
The term colored stone covers e.g. Emerald, Aquamarine, Garnet, Moonstone, Ruby, Sapphire, Citrine, Amethyst, Smoke Quartz, Rose Quartz, Black Agate, Onyx, Opal, Topaz and Tourmaline.